A promoter is the one who controls the company. A promoter can be an individual, a group of individuals or an organisation. A promoter can also be the one who started the company.
For example, Mukesh Ambani is the promoter of Reliance Industries. His wife Nita Ambani is also part of the promoter group – along with Mukesh’s children Akash, Isha and Anant. The entire Ambani family owns more than 50% stake in Reliance Industries.
Tata Sons Private Limited is the promoter of Tata Consultancy Services (TCS). Tata Sons holds more than 70% stake in TCS.
While Reliance Industries is a family-owned business, which is centrally controlled by its promoter Mukesh Ambani – TCS and other Tata Companies are professionally-run businesses which are run independently.